The Australian Goldrushes: A Historical Report

Stages and Phases

Title The Australian Goldrushes

General statement

Identification

Time

Place

The Australian goldrushes are significant in Australian nineteenth-century history. The first verified discovery of gold was around Bathurst, New South Wales, in 1851. Goldfields were then established in areas around the nation. People came from all over the world with the intention of striking it rich. Between 1845 and 1896 Australia’s population more than doubled, going from 400 000 to 1 000 000 people.

Description

Environment

Accommodation

At first, goldfields were established in rough environments longside rivers. As the claims of success and wealth grew, the sites became busy. The surrounding ridges became huge campsites housing prospectors and their families as well as tradespeople attracted by other work prospects. People lived in tents at first; later, huts made from wood, canvas, and bark were common. Over time the goldfields became towns and cities. At the start of a goldrush site, there were very few roads, meaning that everything had to be carried in from the surrounding townships. As the site developed, people travelled on horseback or wheeled their possessions in barrows.

Transport

Employment opportunities

Nutrition and health

While it was the opportunity of striking it rich that attracted many, other people stayed for the other job opportunities. Mostly, the people who flourished at teh goldfields were the tradespeople selling food and equipment and the landowners, selling land to people for homes. The diigings also provided employment in services such as laundry, inns, and boarding houses, and even hospitals.

Health and hygiene became an issue on the diggings. People lived on a basic diet of damper, tea, and mutton, which didn’t provide the necessary nutrition and variety. Sewage was not correctly disposed of and, as a result, clean drinking and washing water became contaminated. In addition to this, diseases and epidemics were brought to the diggings by the people arriving from overseas by ship. While there were doctors and nurses, they could not deal with the numbers so many people died from illnesses such as dysentry and typhoid.

Historical significance of the goldrushes The goldrushes played an important role in building the Australian nation. They were responsible for diversifying an economy formerly based on wheat and sheep. The influx of immigrants contributed to a multicultural society. The heritage of the goldrush era is still apparent in many of the public buildings in cities such as Bathurst and Ballarat.

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

The Acoustic Guitar: A Compositional Report

Stages and Phases

Title The Acoustic Guitar

General statement

Entity identification

 

 

The acoustic guitar consists of multiple parts that work together to create sound. It has a hollow body that amplifies the tone created by the vibration of the strings when strummed or plucked. The important parts are the body, the fretboard, the sound hole, the captan, the tuning pegs, the strings, and the bridge.

The body of the acoustic guitar is considered to be very important as it provides the resonance that shapes the tone of the guitar as well as the volume.

The fretboard is commonly made from rosewood and has a number of metal frets embedded in it (20-24). Strings are pressed down behind the fret to change the note that the open string will produce. Most fretboards have marker inlays on the third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and twelfth frets; they function as q quick recognition indicator.

The sound hole is where the soundwaves made by the strings via the bridge saddle (see diagram) exit the body leading to what is ultimately heard.

The headstock, which is attached to the end of the guitar’s neck, houses the tuning pegs. It can also be where the guitar identification, i.e. brand, is.

The tuning pegs are attached to the capstan, which allows the strings to be lowered or raised in pitch. The capstan has the string tied through it.

The bridge is found between the hole and the bottom of the body. Its function is to allow the strings to pass over it and sit at a certain height, which is called the action.

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

Acoustic guitar2

Environmental Disasters: A Classifying Report

Stages and Phases

Title Environmental Disasters
General Statement A disaster is something that does a lot of damage.
Definition Sometimes, disasters hurt living things and the place where they live. These disasters are called environmental disasters.
Identification of classes Water pollution can be an environmental disaster. Water is polluted when people put things such as rubbish into it. Air pollution can also be an environmental disaster. Air can be polluted by things such as gas or smoke.
Description
Water pollution

Oil spills

Sometimes oil is spilled into water. Most spills are accidents. The most common accidents are when an oil tanker hits another oil tanker, or when an oil tanker hits the rocks.

Air pollution

Toxic gas

Toxic means poisonous. Companies use toxic gas to make chemicals. Large amounts of toxic gas can be very dangerous. It can hurt or kill animals and humans.

Nuclear power

Nuclear power can be very useful, but it can also be very dangerous if something goes wrong. If there is an accident, it can cause dangerous radioactive fallout. This cannot be seen, but it quickly spreads over a large area.

Smog

Smog is a big cloud of polluted air. It is like very thick fog. It hangs just above the ground. In some big cities, a lot of coal and oil are used. These can make smog. In some cities there are lots of cars and trucks on the road. The fumes from the cars and trucks can make smog. The more pollution there is, the worse the smog gets.

Source: Thomas 2008

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

Different Kinds of Circumstances – Grammar

From ‘A New Grammar Companion For Teachers’

Beverly Derewianka

Time

When?

(Point in time)

I’ll see you at eight o’clock.

He’s got an appointment in the morning.

She sprained her ankle yesterday.

We’re going over there now.

How long?

(Duration in time)

I haven’t seen him for ages.

That film lasted forever.

During this period he was unemployed.

How many times?

(Frequency)

We play tennis every Saturday.

They regularly visit his mother.

On weekdays she catches the bus.

We often see him at the club.

Place

Where?

(Point in space)

I’ll see you there.

Place eggs in the bowl.

He snuggled under the warm blankets.

Where to/ from?

(Direction)

He was walking backwards.

They drove towards the village.

How far? (Distance) We walked for miles.
Manner

How?

(Quality)

Slowly, she made her way through the crowd.

The singers performed well.

By what means? (Means)

Beat the mixture with a fork.

They travelled by train.

What like?

(Comparison)

She laughed like a hyena.

Unlike her mother, she enjoyed reading.

How much?

(Degree)

To a large extent they only had themselves to blame.

She always pays too much.

She loved him deeply.

Accompaniment

Who/what with?

(In the company of)

She went to the dentist alone.

Together they fought for justice.

He left with Susan.

And who/what else?

(In addition)

There was blancmange as well as jelly.

Besides her best friend, no-one knew her secret.

The children cleaned up instead of their mother.

Matter

What about?

(Topic)

Regarding your question, can you put it in writing?

They talked all night about the situation.

Cause

Why?

(Reason)

Due to poor visibility, the flight will be cancelled.

As a result of her illness, she was unable to continue.

They invited her out of pity. 

Why? What for?

(Purpose)

He was making lasagne for dinner.

She went to the party in the hope of seeing him.

Who for? (Behalf)

I wanted to thank you on our behalf.

Mick laid the table for his mother.

Contingency

What if…?

(Condition)

In case of cancellation, tickets will be refunded.

In the event of a draw, there will be a penalty shootout.

Although…?

(Concession)

Beached whale dies, despite recue attempts.

They let him play in spite of their misgivings.

Role

What as?

(Guise)

As an expert in the field, she was often asked for her opinion.

In his role as president, he chaired the meeting.

Angle

According to whom?

(Source)

In the words of Martin Luther King Jr., a right delayed is a right denied.

According to you, I’m difficult.

In whose view?

(Viewpoint)

In my opinion, she could do much better.

From the customer’s perspective, it’s a legitimate gripe.

Narrative Prompts – Some suggestions

Here are some narrative prompts to help you choose something that would be useful for your students. Could teachers please get together to decide which prompt they will use:
– Receptions – will orally retell a well known story
– Year 1/2 – a fluffy green frog used as a prompt
– Year 3-6 – Trouble prompt (see below)
– Year 7 – Through the doors

Please decide with your group the exact wording to be used by the teacher when introducing the prompt. Explicit teaching is not required at this stage of baseline data collection. Confirm the prompt and wording with Nicola, Julie or Daniela prior to undertaking the task with students.

 

A special Summer Day

Gr4-5_Summer_Day
Cow Story
Cow Story

Strange Events prompt
Narrative Promptstrange events
Past NAPLAN prompt:

The Box

Narrative prompt the box

Danger prompt

Trouble

Missing Parts
Missing Parts

Aliens

aliens

Touch down
Touch down
Fine details

Fine details

Reference:
https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/p-10/naplan/test-preparation/writing2/imaginative-writing

Testing Process for NPS Students 2015

Could staff please make sure that the following assessments have been collated and entered into our database.

Year Group

Early Intervention Program

Oral Language

Phonological Awareness

eg. SPAT, PAA

PAT-R

(Sept)

PAT-M

(Sept)

SA Spelling

Test A beginning of Year

Test B End of Year

Running Records

(DECD – End of Term 1 and 3)

Ongoing

NAPLAN

 

(May)

Writing EALD Language and Literacy Level – Sentence Structure
R Y Y Y Y
1 Y Y Y Y
2 Y Y Y Y Y Y
3 Teacher Judgement Y Y Y Teacher Judgement Y Y
4 Teacher Judgement Y Y Y Teacher Judgement Y
5 Teacher Judgement Y Y Y Teacher Judgement Y Y
6 Teacher Judgement Y Y Y Teacher Judgement Y
7 Teacher Judgement Y Y Y Teacher Judgement Y Y

 

Download a copy of SA Spelling Tests here:
South-Australian-Spelling-Test-1ntr68s