Graphic Organisers – Reading Comprehension and Writing Plans

A Closer Look at Spelling in the Primary Classroom – G Oakley, J Fellowes, PETAA

Notes:

Spelling is not learned by rote or by immersion in writing and reading experiences.

Spelling is learned through:

  • the strategic use of knowledge about
    • Phonology – sound structure
    • Orthography – written symbols to represent spoken language
    • Morphology – smallest parts of words that carry meaning
    • Etymology – origin of words
  • visual activity – memory
  • metalanguage
    • phoneme
    • syllable
    • affixes
    • morpheme – units of meaning, base, root words, prefixes, suffixes
  • spelling system
  • generalisations
  • integration with the teaching of phonological awareness, phonics, word study, vocabulary, writing and reading.

Components of Phonological Awareness:

A Comprehensive Model of Spelling for Educators

Motivation and willingness to engage is influenced by quality of the learning environment, characterised by:

  • meaningful
  • ‘real life’ significance
  • reasonable level of challenge

Instruction needs to:

  • be related to writing and it’s role in effective communication.
  • involve students in group work
  • involve solving word problems
  • build a community of spellers who know how to research and use words for authentic purposes
  • see the teacher taking an important role in modelling and inspiring a passion about words and their value as tools for communication

Differentiation will be needed to meet the students’ range of needs.

“It would be a waste of everybody’s time if they were all expected to learn the same words, strategies and skills.”

To differentiate consider:

  • readiness
  • interest
  • learning profile

To assess readiness the Words Their Way test can be used as a pre-assessment.

Content

  • high frequency word lists
  • words of interest to student
  • words that the teacher has noticed the student trying to spell in writing
  • words that contain features that the students needs to practise
  • words from topics that are being covered across the curriculum

“Having students work through a commercial workbook, at their own pace, does not constitute differentiated teaching.”

 

7 Goals for Differentiation in the Classroom – Heacox 2002

  1. Develop challenging and engaging tasks for each learner.
  2. Develop instructional activities based on essential topics and concepts, processes and skills, and differentiated ways of displaying learning.
  3. Provide flexible approaches to content instruction and products.
  4. Respond to students’ readiness, instructional needs, interests, and learning preferences.
  5. Provide opportunities for students to work in various instructional formats.
  6. Meet curriculum standards and requirements for each learner.
  7. Establish learner-responsive, teacher-facilitated classrooms.

Recommended sequence for teaching sound-letter correspondence.

Spelling Sequence 1

Spelling Sequence 2

Sources of Knowledge

Phonological Knowledge

  • syllables
  • rhyme
  • onset-rhyme
  • phonemes
  • phonemic manipulation
  • word pronumciation
  • segmenting words into syllables, phonemes or morphemes

Orthographic Knowledge

  • sound-letter relationship
  • common spelling patterns/ letter sequences
  • rules for positioning of letter in words

Morphological Knowledge

  • free and bound morphemes
  • root and base words
  • prefixes and suffixes; included inflected endings
  • word derivations
  • rules and generalisations regarding adding suffixes
  • compound words
  • homonyms

Suggested sequence for introducing morphemes Table 4.4 page 76

Visual perception problems

http://www.thevisiontherapycenter.com/discovering-vision-therapy/bid/81695/Spelling-Difficulties-in-Students-Caused-by-Vision-Problems

Word Consciousness

  • interested in words
  • being aware of words and their parts
  • curious and motivated to learn

Spelling is a thinking process not a rote learning task.

Spelling Strategy posters:

  • Sound it out
  • Does it look right?
  • Spell by meaning
  • Consulting an authority
  • Analogy
  • Spell by rule
  • Mnemonics

Technology based interventions:

  • Phonics Alive – Advanced Software
  • Clicker Phonics
  • Fast Forward – (Fairly costly but developed by neuroscientists)
  • Aerobics by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Wordshark 5 by White Space Ltd
  • Apps
    • Hearbuilder
    • Prof’s Phonics 1
    • Alpha Writer
  • Plickers – using a game called ‘You can join my game’

Use data about where your students are at to determine needs and address these.

Assessment is an important tool to do this.

Explicit teaching of

  • Language
    • phoneme
    • syllable
    • morpheme
    • suffix
    • affix
    • baseword
    • prefix
    • rootword
    • compound
    • homophone
    • homonym
  • Strategies
  • Phonological Knowledge
  • Orthographic Knowledge
  • Morphological Knowledge
  • Etymological Knowledge

Summary:

Characteristics of an effective Spelling Program:

  • Regular assessment – data analysis indicating growth
  • Differentiated practices
    • word lists
    • choices in activities/ ways of working depending on needs and interests
  • Goal setting and regular monitoring with high student involvement in these processes
  • Metalanguage developed
  • Students increasingly developing vocabulary to describe strategies and thinking processes used
  • Learning applied to writing
  • Sense of fun, wonder, challenge experienced
  • Games, challenges as a class
  • Curriculum standards addressed and achieved
  • students increasingly able to articulate their learning, explaining patterns and generalisations and appropriately applying these
  • Evidence shows development – what students say, write, do and make reflected on skills/ knowledge continuum (may not be linear)
  • Intervention strategies implemented for cohorts/ individuals as necessary with support of SSO, parent, peer tutor, regular time with the teacher – tied to goals which are time bound and reviewed to measure effectiveness of processes used.
  • Further assessment sought/ referred if intervention not successful
    • technological tools could be useful (Phonics Alive, Apps, Text to speech (coping strategy)
  • Students use their knowledge and skills strategically to spell increasingly proficiently
    • phonological knowledge
    • orthographical knowledge
    • morphological knowledge
    • etymological knowledge
    • apply strategies for how to spell unknown words
      • sound
      • sight
      • meaning
      • rules
      • mnemonics
      • authority

Phonological and Morphological suggested sequence

Which ‘Characteristics of an effective Spelling Program’ are evident here?

NAIDOC Week

National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee
http://iview.abc.net.au/programs/ngarrindjeri-shorts/ZW0732A001S00

Shared Read Aloud this week:

Enora and the Black Crane by Raymond Meeks
This is a traditional story, based on Arone Raymond Meeks’ knowledge of the bush, the spirits who lived there and their laws as taught to him by his grandfather, a member of the Kokoimudgji group in Queensland.

Jandamarra’s Story
An important story belonging to the Kimberley people which focuses on one man’s resistance to colonisation.

The Burnt Stick by Anthony Hill
A poignant story from a young boy’s perspective of his removal from his mother and their group. A great insight for students into the trauma caused by the removal of children from their family and traditions.
A great companion read would be The Rabbits by John Marsden and Shaun Tan.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTvXe84UqIQ

Hope you get a chance to share some of these stories with your classes during NAIDOC Week.
Feel free to add comments to this blog post in response to your class’s discussion/ ideas.
🙂

Model of a Descriptive Report (basic Information Report)

 

Title Red-bellied piranha

General statement

Entity classification

The red-bellied piranha is a type of fish that lives in the Amazon River.

Description

Features

It has an orange belly, grey back, and very sharp teeth set in strong jaws. It grows up to 33 centimetres in length.

Diet

Behaviour

The red-bellied piranha hunts in shoals of 20-30 fish. They feed on a diet of fish, insects, snails, plants, and river animals. They hide in vegetation in order to ambush prey, and they also chase prey and scavenge for food. The younger, smaller fish hunt by day, and the older, bigger fish hunt at dawn and dusk.
Reproduction The female lays a clutch of up to 1 000 eggs.
Life expectancy Piranhas can live for about 100 years.

 

piranha-262575_1280

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

The Australian Goldrushes: A Historical Report

Stages and Phases

Title The Australian Goldrushes

General statement

Identification

Time

Place

The Australian goldrushes are significant in Australian nineteenth-century history. The first verified discovery of gold was around Bathurst, New South Wales, in 1851. Goldfields were then established in areas around the nation. People came from all over the world with the intention of striking it rich. Between 1845 and 1896 Australia’s population more than doubled, going from 400 000 to 1 000 000 people.

Description

Environment

Accommodation

At first, goldfields were established in rough environments longside rivers. As the claims of success and wealth grew, the sites became busy. The surrounding ridges became huge campsites housing prospectors and their families as well as tradespeople attracted by other work prospects. People lived in tents at first; later, huts made from wood, canvas, and bark were common. Over time the goldfields became towns and cities. At the start of a goldrush site, there were very few roads, meaning that everything had to be carried in from the surrounding townships. As the site developed, people travelled on horseback or wheeled their possessions in barrows.

Transport

Employment opportunities

Nutrition and health

While it was the opportunity of striking it rich that attracted many, other people stayed for the other job opportunities. Mostly, the people who flourished at teh goldfields were the tradespeople selling food and equipment and the landowners, selling land to people for homes. The diigings also provided employment in services such as laundry, inns, and boarding houses, and even hospitals.

Health and hygiene became an issue on the diggings. People lived on a basic diet of damper, tea, and mutton, which didn’t provide the necessary nutrition and variety. Sewage was not correctly disposed of and, as a result, clean drinking and washing water became contaminated. In addition to this, diseases and epidemics were brought to the diggings by the people arriving from overseas by ship. While there were doctors and nurses, they could not deal with the numbers so many people died from illnesses such as dysentry and typhoid.

Historical significance of the goldrushes The goldrushes played an important role in building the Australian nation. They were responsible for diversifying an economy formerly based on wheat and sheep. The influx of immigrants contributed to a multicultural society. The heritage of the goldrush era is still apparent in many of the public buildings in cities such as Bathurst and Ballarat.

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

The Acoustic Guitar: A Compositional Report

Stages and Phases

Title The Acoustic Guitar

General statement

Entity identification

 

 

The acoustic guitar consists of multiple parts that work together to create sound. It has a hollow body that amplifies the tone created by the vibration of the strings when strummed or plucked. The important parts are the body, the fretboard, the sound hole, the captan, the tuning pegs, the strings, and the bridge.

The body of the acoustic guitar is considered to be very important as it provides the resonance that shapes the tone of the guitar as well as the volume.

The fretboard is commonly made from rosewood and has a number of metal frets embedded in it (20-24). Strings are pressed down behind the fret to change the note that the open string will produce. Most fretboards have marker inlays on the third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and twelfth frets; they function as q quick recognition indicator.

The sound hole is where the soundwaves made by the strings via the bridge saddle (see diagram) exit the body leading to what is ultimately heard.

The headstock, which is attached to the end of the guitar’s neck, houses the tuning pegs. It can also be where the guitar identification, i.e. brand, is.

The tuning pegs are attached to the capstan, which allows the strings to be lowered or raised in pitch. The capstan has the string tied through it.

The bridge is found between the hole and the bottom of the body. Its function is to allow the strings to pass over it and sit at a certain height, which is called the action.

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

Acoustic guitar2

Environmental Disasters: A Classifying Report

Stages and Phases

Title Environmental Disasters
General Statement A disaster is something that does a lot of damage.
Definition Sometimes, disasters hurt living things and the place where they live. These disasters are called environmental disasters.
Identification of classes Water pollution can be an environmental disaster. Water is polluted when people put things such as rubbish into it. Air pollution can also be an environmental disaster. Air can be polluted by things such as gas or smoke.
Description
Water pollution

Oil spills

Sometimes oil is spilled into water. Most spills are accidents. The most common accidents are when an oil tanker hits another oil tanker, or when an oil tanker hits the rocks.

Air pollution

Toxic gas

Toxic means poisonous. Companies use toxic gas to make chemicals. Large amounts of toxic gas can be very dangerous. It can hurt or kill animals and humans.

Nuclear power

Nuclear power can be very useful, but it can also be very dangerous if something goes wrong. If there is an accident, it can cause dangerous radioactive fallout. This cannot be seen, but it quickly spreads over a large area.

Smog

Smog is a big cloud of polluted air. It is like very thick fog. It hangs just above the ground. In some big cities, a lot of coal and oil are used. These can make smog. In some cities there are lots of cars and trucks on the road. The fumes from the cars and trucks can make smog. The more pollution there is, the worse the smog gets.

Source: Thomas 2008

Teaching Language in Context, Beverly Derewianka and Pauline Jones, Oxford, 2013

Different Kinds of Circumstances – Grammar

From ‘A New Grammar Companion For Teachers’

Beverly Derewianka

Time

When?

(Point in time)

I’ll see you at eight o’clock.

He’s got an appointment in the morning.

She sprained her ankle yesterday.

We’re going over there now.

How long?

(Duration in time)

I haven’t seen him for ages.

That film lasted forever.

During this period he was unemployed.

How many times?

(Frequency)

We play tennis every Saturday.

They regularly visit his mother.

On weekdays she catches the bus.

We often see him at the club.

Place

Where?

(Point in space)

I’ll see you there.

Place eggs in the bowl.

He snuggled under the warm blankets.

Where to/ from?

(Direction)

He was walking backwards.

They drove towards the village.

How far? (Distance) We walked for miles.
Manner

How?

(Quality)

Slowly, she made her way through the crowd.

The singers performed well.

By what means? (Means)

Beat the mixture with a fork.

They travelled by train.

What like?

(Comparison)

She laughed like a hyena.

Unlike her mother, she enjoyed reading.

How much?

(Degree)

To a large extent they only had themselves to blame.

She always pays too much.

She loved him deeply.

Accompaniment

Who/what with?

(In the company of)

She went to the dentist alone.

Together they fought for justice.

He left with Susan.

And who/what else?

(In addition)

There was blancmange as well as jelly.

Besides her best friend, no-one knew her secret.

The children cleaned up instead of their mother.

Matter

What about?

(Topic)

Regarding your question, can you put it in writing?

They talked all night about the situation.

Cause

Why?

(Reason)

Due to poor visibility, the flight will be cancelled.

As a result of her illness, she was unable to continue.

They invited her out of pity. 

Why? What for?

(Purpose)

He was making lasagne for dinner.

She went to the party in the hope of seeing him.

Who for? (Behalf)

I wanted to thank you on our behalf.

Mick laid the table for his mother.

Contingency

What if…?

(Condition)

In case of cancellation, tickets will be refunded.

In the event of a draw, there will be a penalty shootout.

Although…?

(Concession)

Beached whale dies, despite recue attempts.

They let him play in spite of their misgivings.

Role

What as?

(Guise)

As an expert in the field, she was often asked for her opinion.

In his role as president, he chaired the meeting.

Angle

According to whom?

(Source)

In the words of Martin Luther King Jr., a right delayed is a right denied.

According to you, I’m difficult.

In whose view?

(Viewpoint)

In my opinion, she could do much better.

From the customer’s perspective, it’s a legitimate gripe.

Dyslexia Training Resources and References