NAPLAN Writing Results from 2016 to reflect on

Click on the tabs at the top to explore to explore Year 3, Year 5 and Year 7 results

It will be important to prepare students for either a persuasive or narrative text. Exploring the difference between the two in structure and language use will help to prepare students.

Writing Rubrics and Descriptions of National Minimum Standards for Year 3, 5 and 7
Persuasive writing rubric-wq1m7k

Narrative writing rubric-15h1h50

NAPLAN Writing Resources from website:
https://www.nap.edu.au/naplan/writing

Graphic Organisers – Reading Comprehension and Writing Plans

A Closer Look at Spelling in the Primary Classroom – G Oakley, J Fellowes, PETAA

Notes:

Spelling is not learned by rote or by immersion in writing and reading experiences.

Spelling is learned through:

  • the strategic use of knowledge about
    • Phonology – sound structure
    • Orthography – written symbols to represent spoken language
    • Morphology – smallest parts of words that carry meaning
    • Etymology – origin of words
  • visual activity – memory
  • metalanguage
    • phoneme
    • syllable
    • affixes
    • morpheme – units of meaning, base, root words, prefixes, suffixes
  • spelling system
  • generalisations
  • integration with the teaching of phonological awareness, phonics, word study, vocabulary, writing and reading.

Components of Phonological Awareness:

A Comprehensive Model of Spelling for Educators

Motivation and willingness to engage is influenced by quality of the learning environment, characterised by:

  • meaningful
  • ‘real life’ significance
  • reasonable level of challenge

Instruction needs to:

  • be related to writing and it’s role in effective communication.
  • involve students in group work
  • involve solving word problems
  • build a community of spellers who know how to research and use words for authentic purposes
  • see the teacher taking an important role in modelling and inspiring a passion about words and their value as tools for communication

Differentiation will be needed to meet the students’ range of needs.

“It would be a waste of everybody’s time if they were all expected to learn the same words, strategies and skills.”

To differentiate consider:

  • readiness
  • interest
  • learning profile

To assess readiness the Words Their Way test can be used as a pre-assessment.

Content

  • high frequency word lists
  • words of interest to student
  • words that the teacher has noticed the student trying to spell in writing
  • words that contain features that the students needs to practise
  • words from topics that are being covered across the curriculum

“Having students work through a commercial workbook, at their own pace, does not constitute differentiated teaching.”

 

7 Goals for Differentiation in the Classroom – Heacox 2002

  1. Develop challenging and engaging tasks for each learner.
  2. Develop instructional activities based on essential topics and concepts, processes and skills, and differentiated ways of displaying learning.
  3. Provide flexible approaches to content instruction and products.
  4. Respond to students’ readiness, instructional needs, interests, and learning preferences.
  5. Provide opportunities for students to work in various instructional formats.
  6. Meet curriculum standards and requirements for each learner.
  7. Establish learner-responsive, teacher-facilitated classrooms.

Recommended sequence for teaching sound-letter correspondence.

Spelling Sequence 1

Spelling Sequence 2

Sources of Knowledge

Phonological Knowledge

  • syllables
  • rhyme
  • onset-rhyme
  • phonemes
  • phonemic manipulation
  • word pronumciation
  • segmenting words into syllables, phonemes or morphemes

Orthographic Knowledge

  • sound-letter relationship
  • common spelling patterns/ letter sequences
  • rules for positioning of letter in words

Morphological Knowledge

  • free and bound morphemes
  • root and base words
  • prefixes and suffixes; included inflected endings
  • word derivations
  • rules and generalisations regarding adding suffixes
  • compound words
  • homonyms

Suggested sequence for introducing morphemes Table 4.4 page 76

Visual perception problems

http://www.thevisiontherapycenter.com/discovering-vision-therapy/bid/81695/Spelling-Difficulties-in-Students-Caused-by-Vision-Problems

Word Consciousness

  • interested in words
  • being aware of words and their parts
  • curious and motivated to learn

Spelling is a thinking process not a rote learning task.

Spelling Strategy posters:

  • Sound it out
  • Does it look right?
  • Spell by meaning
  • Consulting an authority
  • Analogy
  • Spell by rule
  • Mnemonics

Technology based interventions:

  • Phonics Alive – Advanced Software
  • Clicker Phonics
  • Fast Forward – (Fairly costly but developed by neuroscientists)
  • Aerobics by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Wordshark 5 by White Space Ltd
  • Apps
    • Hearbuilder
    • Prof’s Phonics 1
    • Alpha Writer
  • Plickers – using a game called ‘You can join my game’

Use data about where your students are at to determine needs and address these.

Assessment is an important tool to do this.

Explicit teaching of

  • Language
    • phoneme
    • syllable
    • morpheme
    • suffix
    • affix
    • baseword
    • prefix
    • rootword
    • compound
    • homophone
    • homonym
  • Strategies
  • Phonological Knowledge
  • Orthographic Knowledge
  • Morphological Knowledge
  • Etymological Knowledge

Summary:

Characteristics of an effective Spelling Program:

  • Regular assessment – data analysis indicating growth
  • Differentiated practices
    • word lists
    • choices in activities/ ways of working depending on needs and interests
  • Goal setting and regular monitoring with high student involvement in these processes
  • Metalanguage developed
  • Students increasingly developing vocabulary to describe strategies and thinking processes used
  • Learning applied to writing
  • Sense of fun, wonder, challenge experienced
  • Games, challenges as a class
  • Curriculum standards addressed and achieved
  • students increasingly able to articulate their learning, explaining patterns and generalisations and appropriately applying these
  • Evidence shows development – what students say, write, do and make reflected on skills/ knowledge continuum (may not be linear)
  • Intervention strategies implemented for cohorts/ individuals as necessary with support of SSO, parent, peer tutor, regular time with the teacher – tied to goals which are time bound and reviewed to measure effectiveness of processes used.
  • Further assessment sought/ referred if intervention not successful
    • technological tools could be useful (Phonics Alive, Apps, Text to speech (coping strategy)
  • Students use their knowledge and skills strategically to spell increasingly proficiently
    • phonological knowledge
    • orthographical knowledge
    • morphological knowledge
    • etymological knowledge
    • apply strategies for how to spell unknown words
      • sound
      • sight
      • meaning
      • rules
      • mnemonics
      • authority

Phonological and Morphological suggested sequence

Which ‘Characteristics of an effective Spelling Program’ are evident here?

NAIDOC Week

National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee
http://iview.abc.net.au/programs/ngarrindjeri-shorts/ZW0732A001S00

Shared Read Aloud this week:

Enora and the Black Crane by Raymond Meeks
This is a traditional story, based on Arone Raymond Meeks’ knowledge of the bush, the spirits who lived there and their laws as taught to him by his grandfather, a member of the Kokoimudgji group in Queensland.

Jandamarra’s Story
An important story belonging to the Kimberley people which focuses on one man’s resistance to colonisation.

The Burnt Stick by Anthony Hill
A poignant story from a young boy’s perspective of his removal from his mother and their group. A great insight for students into the trauma caused by the removal of children from their family and traditions.
A great companion read would be The Rabbits by John Marsden and Shaun Tan.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTvXe84UqIQ

Hope you get a chance to share some of these stories with your classes during NAIDOC Week.
Feel free to add comments to this blog post in response to your class’s discussion/ ideas.
🙂

EALD Levelling – How is it going?

Have you come up with any scaffolds to help you with the process? Would you like to share any tips or tricks?

I have adapted the original EALD notes for assigning a level to help me gather information. Feel free to use and give feedback. I think this will be useful to set clearer goals for students.

EALD-Notes-for-Assigning-a-level -added tablesv2

For example:
Student 1 could improve by building more interesting noun groups, as only pointers, describers and classifiers have been used. (Challenge: Include a range of expanded noun groups in your writing to suit the audience and purpose.

 

Which? How many? What like? What type? Who or what? More information
I felt like throttling those two scruffy alley cats on the roof that were yowling all night.
 MEANING Pointer Quantifier Describer Classifier Thing Qualifier
 FORM Determiner Numeral Adjective Noun Noun Prepositional phrase and/ or embedded clause

Student 2 could work on using a range of complex sentence structures, including a wider range of (binding) conjunctions and including non-finite sentences. (Challenge: try to switch sentence around during editing process)
Student 3  could also work on developing sentence structures by perhaps focusing on expanding circumstances (Challenge: Add more detail? Where? When? How? Why?)

Student 4  could be working on the punctuating of sentences, especially using commas for effect between describers and after text connectives.