A Closer Look at Spelling in the Primary Classroom – G Oakley, J Fellowes, PETAA

Notes:

Spelling is not learned by rote or by immersion in writing and reading experiences.

Spelling is learned through:

  • the strategic use of knowledge about
    • Phonology – sound structure
    • Orthography – written symbols to represent spoken language
    • Morphology – smallest parts of words that carry meaning
    • Etymology – origin of words
  • visual activity – memory
  • metalanguage
    • phoneme
    • syllable
    • affixes
    • morpheme – units of meaning, base, root words, prefixes, suffixes
  • spelling system
  • generalisations
  • integration with the teaching of phonological awareness, phonics, word study, vocabulary, writing and reading.

Components of Phonological Awareness:

A Comprehensive Model of Spelling for Educators

Motivation and willingness to engage is influenced by quality of the learning environment, characterised by:

  • meaningful
  • ‘real life’ significance
  • reasonable level of challenge

Instruction needs to:

  • be related to writing and it’s role in effective communication.
  • involve students in group work
  • involve solving word problems
  • build a community of spellers who know how to research and use words for authentic purposes
  • see the teacher taking an important role in modelling and inspiring a passion about words and their value as tools for communication

Differentiation will be needed to meet the students’ range of needs.

“It would be a waste of everybody’s time if they were all expected to learn the same words, strategies and skills.”

To differentiate consider:

  • readiness
  • interest
  • learning profile

To assess readiness the Words Their Way test can be used as a pre-assessment.

Content

  • high frequency word lists
  • words of interest to student
  • words that the teacher has noticed the student trying to spell in writing
  • words that contain features that the students needs to practise
  • words from topics that are being covered across the curriculum

“Having students work through a commercial workbook, at their own pace, does not constitute differentiated teaching.”

 

7 Goals for Differentiation in the Classroom – Heacox 2002

  1. Develop challenging and engaging tasks for each learner.
  2. Develop instructional activities based on essential topics and concepts, processes and skills, and differentiated ways of displaying learning.
  3. Provide flexible approaches to content instruction and products.
  4. Respond to students’ readiness, instructional needs, interests, and learning preferences.
  5. Provide opportunities for students to work in various instructional formats.
  6. Meet curriculum standards and requirements for each learner.
  7. Establish learner-responsive, teacher-facilitated classrooms.

Recommended sequence for teaching sound-letter correspondence.

Spelling Sequence 1

Spelling Sequence 2

Sources of Knowledge

Phonological Knowledge

  • syllables
  • rhyme
  • onset-rhyme
  • phonemes
  • phonemic manipulation
  • word pronumciation
  • segmenting words into syllables, phonemes or morphemes

Orthographic Knowledge

  • sound-letter relationship
  • common spelling patterns/ letter sequences
  • rules for positioning of letter in words

Morphological Knowledge

  • free and bound morphemes
  • root and base words
  • prefixes and suffixes; included inflected endings
  • word derivations
  • rules and generalisations regarding adding suffixes
  • compound words
  • homonyms

Suggested sequence for introducing morphemes Table 4.4 page 76

Visual perception problems

http://www.thevisiontherapycenter.com/discovering-vision-therapy/bid/81695/Spelling-Difficulties-in-Students-Caused-by-Vision-Problems

Word Consciousness

  • interested in words
  • being aware of words and their parts
  • curious and motivated to learn

Spelling is a thinking process not a rote learning task.

Spelling Strategy posters:

  • Sound it out
  • Does it look right?
  • Spell by meaning
  • Consulting an authority
  • Analogy
  • Spell by rule
  • Mnemonics

Technology based interventions:

  • Phonics Alive – Advanced Software
  • Clicker Phonics
  • Fast Forward – (Fairly costly but developed by neuroscientists)
  • Aerobics by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Wordshark 5 by White Space Ltd
  • Apps
    • Hearbuilder
    • Prof’s Phonics 1
    • Alpha Writer
  • Plickers – using a game called ‘You can join my game’

Use data about where your students are at to determine needs and address these.

Assessment is an important tool to do this.

Explicit teaching of

  • Language
    • phoneme
    • syllable
    • morpheme
    • suffix
    • affix
    • baseword
    • prefix
    • rootword
    • compound
    • homophone
    • homonym
  • Strategies
  • Phonological Knowledge
  • Orthographic Knowledge
  • Morphological Knowledge
  • Etymological Knowledge

Summary:

Characteristics of an effective Spelling Program:

  • Regular assessment – data analysis indicating growth
  • Differentiated practices
    • word lists
    • choices in activities/ ways of working depending on needs and interests
  • Goal setting and regular monitoring with high student involvement in these processes
  • Metalanguage developed
  • Students increasingly developing vocabulary to describe strategies and thinking processes used
  • Learning applied to writing
  • Sense of fun, wonder, challenge experienced
  • Games, challenges as a class
  • Curriculum standards addressed and achieved
  • students increasingly able to articulate their learning, explaining patterns and generalisations and appropriately applying these
  • Evidence shows development – what students say, write, do and make reflected on skills/ knowledge continuum (may not be linear)
  • Intervention strategies implemented for cohorts/ individuals as necessary with support of SSO, parent, peer tutor, regular time with the teacher – tied to goals which are time bound and reviewed to measure effectiveness of processes used.
  • Further assessment sought/ referred if intervention not successful
    • technological tools could be useful (Phonics Alive, Apps, Text to speech (coping strategy)
  • Students use their knowledge and skills strategically to spell increasingly proficiently
    • phonological knowledge
    • orthographical knowledge
    • morphological knowledge
    • etymological knowledge
    • apply strategies for how to spell unknown words
      • sound
      • sight
      • meaning
      • rules
      • mnemonics
      • authority

Phonological and Morphological suggested sequence

Which ‘Characteristics of an effective Spelling Program’ are evident here?

Deepawali – Diwali Notes from Swati

MEANING OF DEEPAWALI (Diwali)
Deepawali or Diwali is certainly the biggest and the brightest of all Hindu festivals. It’s the festival of lights (deep = light and avali = a row i.e., a row of lights) that’s marked by four days of celebration, which literally illuminates the country with its brilliance, and dazzles all with its joy. This year Diwali falls on Sunday, October 30 , 2016. Each of the four days in the festival of Diwali is separated by a different tradition, but what remains true and constant is the celebration of life, its enjoyment and goodness.

The Significance of Lights & Firecrackers

All the simple rituals of Diwali have significance and a story to tell. The illumination of homes with lights and the skies with firecrackers is an expression of obeisance to the heavens for the attainment of health, wealth, knowledge, peace and prosperity. According to one belief, the sound of fire-crackers are an indication of the joy of the people living on earth, making the gods aware of their plentiful state. Still another possible reason has a more scientific basis: the fumes produced by the crackers kill a lot of insects and mosquitoes, found in plenty after the rain.
From Darkness Into Light…

In each legend, myth and story of Deepawali lies the significance of the victory of good over evil; and it is with each Deepawali and the lights that illuminate our homes and hearts, that this simple truth finds new reason and hope. From darkness unto light — the light that empowers us to commit ourselves to good deeds, that which brings us closer to divinity. During Diwali, lights illuminate every corner of India and the scent of incense sticks hangs in the air, mingled with the sounds of fire-crackers, joy, togetherness and hope. Diwali is celebrated around the globe. Outside India, it is more than a Hindu festival; it’s a celebration of South-Asian identities. If you are away from the sights and sounds of Diwali, light a diya, sit quietly, shut your eyes, withdraw the senses, concentrate on this supreme light and illuminate the soul.

Many activities can be done in the classroom Here are Some examples
Colored Sand Rangoli or simple Colorful chalk rangoli

You may be able to buy coloured rice for your rangoli projects. If not, coloured sand (available from craft stores) makes a good alternative. You can also die your own coloured salt, by simply mixing cheap table salt with food colouring and then spreading it out to dry.Coloured sand rangoli
A diya pattern drawn with coloured rice in picture
In traditional rangoli, the outline pattern is drawn on the floor and then filled in by carefully sprinkling coloured powders. Older children could try this technique directly on the ground with coloured sand or salt, having drawn their outline with chalk. Make sure they try this somewhere away from too much foot traffic, and easy to clean!

You will need:
• Chalk for drawing a grid or outline
• Newspaper to work on
• Coloured rice, salt or sand
• Large piece dark paper (black construction paper is ideal)
• PVA glue
• Optional – glitter
You may prefer to draw your outline on a piece of dark coloured paper and then fill in each section with white glue, sprinkling with sand or salt as you would with glitter. Do one colour at a time and shake the excess off onto a large piece of newspaper.
Children could use glitter in some areas of the design for contrast and emphasis. Students can also use simple round candles instead of battery candles.
diwali-1

Diwali Diyas Craft (candles)
diyas

diwali

 

Diwali Cards

 

diwali-cards

Recommended resources from Vicki:

https://www.tes.com/teaching-resources/blog/top-diwali-resources-eyfs-and-primary?utm_campaign=RES-1804&utm_content=australia-newsletter&utm_source=exact-target&utm_medium=email

Questions

I have recently been reading Kath Murdoch’s new book, The Power of Inquiry, and have gathered some different questioning techniques that I will be using this term with classes. Feel free to use what is useful to you.

Questions

Chinese Moon Lantern Festival

The Moon Lantern Festival will be celebrated in Adelaide on Sunday September 18th.

We are planning to celebrate on Thursday 22nd September by involving several classes in making paper lanterns. Parents have been invited to help classes and Chinese students have been learning some of the stories that go with this Autumn- Harvest festival. (It will provide an opportunity to talk about opposite seasons in northern and southern hemispheres.)

At this stage we have had indications from Rooms 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9 to be involved. A variety of different types on lanterns will be on offer depending on the age and abilities of students.

If you would like to involve your class here are some ideas to get you started. (I have included ideas for different ability levels so scroll through to find suitable resources.) Your Chinese speaking students will also be a great resource again. If you are having trouble with accessing the links from the internet, look for them on T share: Teach Info: Moon Lantern Festival.

Stories associated with the festival

Options for Paper Lantern making:

Paper lanterns

Staff Meetings Terms 3 and 4

Term 3

 Week  Topic  Notes
 1  Stanford Uni Maths
 2  Stanford Uni Maths
 3  Stanford Uni Maths  Discuss Modules 1
 4  Stanford Uni Maths
 5  Stanford Uni Maths
 6  PLC
 7  Partnership Meeting
 8
 9  PLC
10 Celebrations

 

Term 4

 Week  Topic
 1  Stanford Uni Maths
 2  Stanford Uni Maths
 3  Stanford Uni Maths
 4  Stanford Uni Maths
 5  PLC
 6
 7
 8
 9  Celebrations

 

NAIDOC Week

National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee
http://iview.abc.net.au/programs/ngarrindjeri-shorts/ZW0732A001S00

Shared Read Aloud this week:

Enora and the Black Crane by Raymond Meeks
This is a traditional story, based on Arone Raymond Meeks’ knowledge of the bush, the spirits who lived there and their laws as taught to him by his grandfather, a member of the Kokoimudgji group in Queensland.

Jandamarra’s Story
An important story belonging to the Kimberley people which focuses on one man’s resistance to colonisation.

The Burnt Stick by Anthony Hill
A poignant story from a young boy’s perspective of his removal from his mother and their group. A great insight for students into the trauma caused by the removal of children from their family and traditions.
A great companion read would be The Rabbits by John Marsden and Shaun Tan.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTvXe84UqIQ

Hope you get a chance to share some of these stories with your classes during NAIDOC Week.
Feel free to add comments to this blog post in response to your class’s discussion/ ideas.
🙂

Resources from Results Plus

Martin Westwell (@martinwestwell)
https://prezi.com/jvg3zxmqdcuz/copy-of-results-2016/

We need to provide students with:
* opportunities for dialogue
* authentic problem solving
* applied problem solving
* role playing methods

Easier to do in Science as a Human Endeavour, Maths proficiencies, and play based learning.
Toolkit available at
https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/

http://evidenceforlearning.org.au/

How do we design learning to stretch all students?

The rule of three – Maria Droujkova – http://naturalmath.com/
http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/03/5-year-olds-can-learn-calculus/284124/

Provide three different ways – students to draw core idea out
– synthesise – pattern – generalisation

Di Siemen – Big Ideas in Mathematics – Victorian Education Department
https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/devbigideas.pdf
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/maths/assessment/Pages/misunderstandings.aspx
https://effective-maths-teaching.wikispaces.com/file/view/Microsoft+PowerPoint+-+PD+Whole+Number.pdf

Website to explore:

http://nrich.maths.org/frontpage

Adding it up – Helping Children Learn Mathematics – research that has informed Australian Curriculum

http://www.wouldyourathermath.com/

Results Through the Plus!

Literacy

The Big 6

  1. Oral Language
  2. Phonological Knowledge
  3. Letter-Sound Knowledge
  4. Vocabulary
  5. Fluency
  6. Comprehension

90/10 Principle – 90% about the enactment/ pedagogy and 10% the program

Implementation trumps impact

Holding the line – Conferencing

 

CONFERENCING
Passive Active
Low Challenge High Challenge
teacher select books/ texts Learners select books/ texts
Teachers manage learners progress Learners monitor their progress
Teachers control the tasks and choices Learners negotiate tasks and choices

Conferencing with individual students about their reading comprehension allows:

the learner to direct the conversation, by referring to their notes

mirroring of student thinking

modelling of think-aloud

making notes for intentional teaching (catering for student needs)

activating learning goals

formative assessment

 

 

Effective conferences motivate learners to make connections, find relationships and justify their thinking.

Hattie

“…it’s how they think.” – Assumptions make an impact

Top 9 aspects that make a difference to student learning:

  1. student expectations (self reported grades)
  2. response to intervention
  3. formative teacher evaluation
  4. feedback
  5. metacognitive strategies
  6. direct instruction
  7. peer tutoring
  8. classroom management
  9. parental involvement

What will you hold the line on?

How will you hold the line?

Mathematical Mindsets – Jo Boaler (text)

Most Likely to Succeed – movie

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iez92IQUHdc

The First 20 Hours – TED Talk

Val Westwell – Maths

Multiple representations and multiple pathways  – to develop number sense

Low achievers

  • don’t use numbers flexibly
  • use harder methods

Adding it Up

  1. Ideas and methods are valued
  2. Students have autonomy in choosing and sharing their methods of solving problems
  3. There is an appreciation of the value of mistakes as a sign of learning

http://teachingandlearning.sa.edu.au/07TfELImprovementCycle/

Dr Amie Albrecht

https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/547034/20160531%20DECD%20ALBRECHT.pdf

@nomad_peguin

amiealbrecht.com

Important skills looked for in Careers which use Maths

  • Active learning (on the job)
  • Critical thinking
  • Complex problem solving
  • Creative problem solving
  • Interpersonal skills – oral and written communication

 

Operations Research in Practice follows these steps

  1. Define the problem
  2. Construct a mathematical model
  3. Solve the problem
  4. Validate the model
  5. Implement the recommendations

@TracyZager

Maths Photo Challenge

@mathsphoto16

#mathsphoto16

http://mathforlove.com/games/

threeacts.mrmeyer.com
@ddmeyer
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1jXSt_CoDzyDFeJimZxnhgwOVsWkTQEsfqouLWNNC6Z4/pub?output=html

http://www.estimation180.com/
@mr_stadel
https://talkingmathwithkids.com/
@trianglemancsd