Different Kinds of Circumstances – Grammar

From ‘A New Grammar Companion For Teachers’

Beverly Derewianka

Time

When?

(Point in time)

I’ll see you at eight o’clock.

He’s got an appointment in the morning.

She sprained her ankle yesterday.

We’re going over there now.

How long?

(Duration in time)

I haven’t seen him for ages.

That film lasted forever.

During this period he was unemployed.

How many times?

(Frequency)

We play tennis every Saturday.

They regularly visit his mother.

On weekdays she catches the bus.

We often see him at the club.

Place

Where?

(Point in space)

I’ll see you there.

Place eggs in the bowl.

He snuggled under the warm blankets.

Where to/ from?

(Direction)

He was walking backwards.

They drove towards the village.

How far? (Distance) We walked for miles.
Manner

How?

(Quality)

Slowly, she made her way through the crowd.

The singers performed well.

By what means? (Means)

Beat the mixture with a fork.

They travelled by train.

What like?

(Comparison)

She laughed like a hyena.

Unlike her mother, she enjoyed reading.

How much?

(Degree)

To a large extent they only had themselves to blame.

She always pays too much.

She loved him deeply.

Accompaniment

Who/what with?

(In the company of)

She went to the dentist alone.

Together they fought for justice.

He left with Susan.

And who/what else?

(In addition)

There was blancmange as well as jelly.

Besides her best friend, no-one knew her secret.

The children cleaned up instead of their mother.

Matter

What about?

(Topic)

Regarding your question, can you put it in writing?

They talked all night about the situation.

Cause

Why?

(Reason)

Due to poor visibility, the flight will be cancelled.

As a result of her illness, she was unable to continue.

They invited her out of pity. 

Why? What for?

(Purpose)

He was making lasagne for dinner.

She went to the party in the hope of seeing him.

Who for? (Behalf)

I wanted to thank you on our behalf.

Mick laid the table for his mother.

Contingency

What if…?

(Condition)

In case of cancellation, tickets will be refunded.

In the event of a draw, there will be a penalty shootout.

Although…?

(Concession)

Beached whale dies, despite recue attempts.

They let him play in spite of their misgivings.

Role

What as?

(Guise)

As an expert in the field, she was often asked for her opinion.

In his role as president, he chaired the meeting.

Angle

According to whom?

(Source)

In the words of Martin Luther King Jr., a right delayed is a right denied.

According to you, I’m difficult.

In whose view?

(Viewpoint)

In my opinion, she could do much better.

From the customer’s perspective, it’s a legitimate gripe.